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Clang/LibTooling AST Notes#

Source Reference: https://github.com/pr0g/clang-experiments/blob/main/examples/clang-ast-notes.md

P. Goldsborough “clang-useful: Building useful tools with LLVM and clang for fun and profit”

Types#

  • Stmt (statement)
  • examples: if
  • Decl (declaration)
  • examples: class, variable, function, enum, values, names,fields, variables
  • Expr (expression)
  • derives from statement
  • Type (types)
  • type declaration
  • qual type - includes const and volatile specifiers

Clang Tooling#

  • libClang (c interface)
  • stable api
  • libTooling

libClang#

  • cursors - a pointer to a node
  • no base class for all types of nodes (no AST node)
  • in C++ visitation class is used
  • has built in code completion
  • codeCompleteAt (insert a special marker in the AST)
  • has a pythonAPI
  • very high level
  • usually easier to achieve things with libClang

libTooling#

  • c++ library
  • more powerful
  • clang tidy
    • could add a new plugin to clang-tidy
  • clang plugin
    • dynamic libraries that you build and link into clang when you run it
    • could put it into your build tool, check for linter errorsetc
  • clang tool
    • standalone executable with clang as a library
    • has a main function
    • more power

Info#

  • AST Dump - dump out whole AST

Demo/Example#

  • Create an index (CIIndex) - a structure that will manage all your translation units for you
  • clang_parseTranslationUnit - important function, gives you back the AST (does all the parsing)
  • CXTranslationUnit - cursor as well
  • clang_visitChildren - does the actual visitation (walks the AST)
  • takes data (void*) data includes filter and the lines (includes some predicates)
  • pattern (regular expression)
  • clang_getCursorKind - kind of cursor (e.g. filter for functions)
    • every cursor has a kind - it is the c abstraction for decl, statement, expression etc…
  • clang_Location_isInSystemHeader - to skip all system headers
  • clang_getCursorSpelling - name of the function/class
  • clang_getSpellingLocation - find where in the file is this cursor, returns line number, column number and file
  • CXChildVisit_Recurse - continue recursing AST
  • CXChildVisit_Continue - continue to the next sibling
  • CXChildVisit_Break - stop at this point
  • libtooling
  • clang tool is made up of three things, an Action, a Consumer and a Callback
  • an Action allows you to access the AST at different steps during the compilation
    • e.g. BeginSourceFileAction - access file name among other things
    • also EndSourceFileAction and ExecuteAction (in between)
    • can print something at the end
    • Consumer - little boilerplate, creates a matcher - good at finding a specific node in the AST
    • has macros where you can define what you’re looking for (e.g. functions)
    • HandleTranslationUnit - run our handler on the AST
    • At this point the AST is already parsed
    • Handler - called for every node that matches
    • mccabe index example
    • buildCFG - builds a graph consisting of basic blocks
    • computer number of nodes and edges
    • clang Diagnostics (can use for your own tool) - Emitting Diagnostics in Clang
    • create a diagnostics engine in clang
  • include sorting (using the preprocessor)
    • BeginInvokeAction - called before any source file is touched
    • can override InclusionDirective in class deriving from clang::PPCallbacks
    • Rewriter.ReplaceText - begin/end
    • clang::FixItHint - describe some way of fixing a problem

Closing#

  • clangd - language server (clang as a service)
  • code completion, linting etc…
  • references
  • eli.thegreenplace.net
  • clang.llvm.org/docs/InternalsManual.html
  • llvm.org/docs/ProgrammersManual.html
  • goldsborough.me & github.com/goldsborough
  • github.com/peter-can-talk/cppnow-2017

Clang Refactoring Talk#

Fred Tingaud “How to Refactor Millions of Line of Code Without Alienating your Colleagues”

  • clang tidy search foe specific clang-tidy nodes
  • Clang Tidy Matcher
  • registerMatchers(MatchFiner* finder) { finder->addMatcher(MY_MATCHER…); }
  • virtual void check(const MatchFinder::MatchResult& result)

Clang Tidy Check Talk#

CPPP 2019 - Adding a New clang-tidy Check by the Practice - Jérémy Demeule

  • clang-query

  • (commands)

  • set output diag
  • enable output detailed-ast
  • match translationUnitDecl
  • match functionDecl
  • match varDecl
  • match functionDecl (hasName("hello"))
  • (introduce alias)
    • let <name> hasAncestor(functionDecl(hasName("<name>")))
    • match callExpr(callee(functionDecl(hasName("<name>"))))
  • clang-tools-extra/clang-tidy

  • ./add_new_check.py <category> <name>

  • (in code - clang-tidy check)

  • ::registerMatchers

  • (::check)

  • const auto* matcherExpr = Result.Node.getNodeAss<CallExpr>("name");

  • diag(MatchExpr->getExprLoc(), "message");
  • use .bind to give matcher a name

  • run-clang-tidy.py -clang-tidy-binary \ -checks …


Last update: April 29, 2021